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Hello. The aim of my research is to explore children’s experiences of maternal imprisonment in Scotland. There is very little information about the experiences of the children of prisoners. There has been limited research in Scotland, and very little from the perspectives of the child themselves. A consequence of increasing female imprisonment is that incrementally more children are being affected by maternal imprisonment. This is why it is of particular importance to look at children¹s experiences; because despite not being imprisoned themselves, more of them are experiencing prison, despite best efforts to develop alternatives to female imprisonment. By interviewing children directly it will also fill the gap in the research already conducted, which has been, for the most part, extrapolated from the point of view of the mothers and other caregivers rather than the perspective of the children and allowing them to have a voice. In doing so qualitative methodological approaches (one-to-one interviews) and Visual tools (Talking Mats and Photography) have been selected to engage child participants (between the ages of 5-18) for this research. It will address the limited knowledge about the consequences for children affected by maternal imprisonment and it will provide an insight into an area on which there is little literature in Scotland. I was wondering if you could give me some advice as I have found access and ethics particularity challenging as agencies have not been engaging as they have concerns about after care for the children should something potentially distressing should arise as a result of taking part in the research. Within

Hi, everyone. I am running into this dilemma, and I would appreciate any advice you can provide. I apologize for the specific nature of the question, but I think the principle is applicable to any international effort for social research involving children. I work for a new charity based in the US that will be grants to individuals and organizations to, among other things, research non-institutional child care in India. While developing our policies, I was dismayed to find out that there is no mandate for an independent ethics review on social research in India. I recognize it would be unethical on my organization's part as the funder to mandate grantees act counter to the local customs and ethical standards, but the guidelines from the Indian government are generally in alignment with international standards -- the difference is that a lack of formalized oversight effectively makes compliance voluntary. Given the particularly vulnerable nature of the population we hope to serve (orphaned and at-risk children), is it a step too far to require potential grantees (including NGOs) to receive some sort of ERB/IRB approval of their study protocol as a condition of funding? Thanks, everyone.

I had a few more questions that I was hoping you could help me answer. 1. Is it ok to conduct research on a student/ person without their knowledge? For instance, can it be observations? Can you create a fake claim for the purpose of the research, and then later reveal the true purpose? 2. All research needs parental permissions. Is that only if the research is going to be presented or published? What about when a school collects data from multiple classrooms and presents the findings. Is that considered research? Must they have parental consent? 3. Can you conduct research if the child without the consent of the child? If a child said they do not want to participate in the research, but their parent says yes, is it ethical to continue with the research? Thank you for any answers you can provide.