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A small change with great implications

Here is a blog I recently posted on LinkedIn pertaining to ethics that I thought might be of interest to researchers working with children:

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/small-change-great-implications-stefania-maggi?trk=prof-post

A small change with great implications: How a slight change in the wording of parental consent forms can promote the rights of the child.

As a developmental researcher, I am interested in understanding the factors that best support healthy child development. And as a child rights advocate, I am always thoughtful in using methods and processes that support the rights of the child.

While in this field of study we have the proper expertise and tools at our disposal to conduct developmental research that aligns with the principles outlined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), researchers like me are too often challenged by institutional Ethics Boards that do not follow adequate guidelines for research involving children.

In a recent knowledge synthesis report by the Children and Youth in Challenging Context Network (CYCC, 2014), the authors provide ample evidence of where our current ethical guidelines are limited when it comes to research involving children. But what’s most compelling about this report is the ways in which the authors are able to demonstrate how the absence of proper ethical guidelines continues to impact negatively on the wellbeing of children, impeding progress not only in the implementation of children’s rights, but also in building a knowledge base that will benefit children and youth.

This issue can be attacked from a number of fronts.

The most obvious one is educating policy makers about the ways in which ethical standards can and should be reconciled with the child rights agenda. This is essentially what the international Ethical Research Involving Children (ERIC) group is currently doing. ERIC is an initiative spearheaded by experts in ethics and child rights and it is supported by organizations like UNICEF and Childwatch International Research Network. Here in Canada, the Child Rights Academic Network (CRAN) is also engaging in dialogue with the policy departments of our national funding agencies in the hope to support in the development of more adequate ethical guidelines for child and youth researchers.

I have no doubt that the persistence, commitment, and professionalism of these leader initiatives will eventually lead to some important changes. But I also know that the bureaucratic machine is complex, and that institutional change takes place in slow motion.

This is such an important issue to me that watching change in slow motion makes me restless. Is it really not possible to do something now?

It is this impatience of mine that led me to look for something, anything, that I could do, however small, to help pushing our pursuit of child rights friendly ethical policies a little forward.

But what can a researcher like me do?

I don’t think very much, if I was the only one doing anything, that is. Except, there are many researchers like me out there, just waiting for the opportunity to help, and if we all did what I am about to propose (wait…it’s coming) then a movement will be born and change is bound to happen.

My proposal is one requiring a change in semantics. I am proposing a slight change in the language in which parental consent is obtained, without violating any of the current ethical practices. In fact, there is no reason why this change should not be accepted by any institutional ethics board because it does not imply any change whatsoever in ethical practices.
What is the change? Here is a typical statement in parental consent forms for children of all ages:

“As parent or legal guardian, I authorize (child’s name) to become a participant in the research study described in this form.”

Of course many variations of this wording exist, but the bottom line is that parents are asked to consent for their child to participate in research.

Try and use this instead:

“As parent or legal guardian, I give permission to the research team to approach my child (name of the child) and ask if he/she wishes to participate in your project.”

In this version of parental consent parents are asked permission to talk to the child and ask him/her if he/she wishes to participate in the study.

What will this small change achieve?

First, parents remain the first point of contact for researchers, honouring parental roles and respecting their authority. If parents don’t give their permission, children will not be approached. This is in line with current ethical practices.
Second, asking parents for permission to talk to their children about participation in research sends a message that children are competent (they can say ‘yes’ or ‘no’) and that the researchers respect them. Parents are given an example of respectful consideration for children and their agency, something that is not always explicit in developmental research.
Third, when parents read the ‘permission to talk’ question, they will know beyond doubt that their children will be asked if they want to participate or not, a detail that more often than not researchers neglect to explain clearly in the context of a consent form.

Furthermore, researchers commit to explain how they will obtain assent from children leading to greater research transparency and accountability, which is of utmost importance especially when working with very young children.

In sum, a small change in language can have a great impact in how we think about children, in showing respect for their agency, in allowing them to take charge of decisions in matters that concern them. In other words, a small change in language can go a long way in promoting children’s rights.

If my institutional Ethics Board approved this change, there is no reason why yours will not do the same. I encourage you to revise your consent forms to reflect the principles outlined in this commentary.

You can help advocating for the rights of children in your research practice without violating current ethical standards. Even a small change in how consent forms are written can make a big difference in promoting change in the way researchers think about children.
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Researching Adoption: Analysing Narratives of Children

Hi
I am researching on adoption practices in India, in this context adoptive children are one of my key respondents. My methodology is based on qualitative engagement through life narratives, I will be using Children’s Apperception Test (Projective Technique) as it is more participatory with children taking a lead role in telling stories and as a researcher I would only be giving instructions and clarifications. Also, CAT will not introduce directly the theme of adoption which may trigger emotional disturbances in adoptive children.
Kindly let me know if I there is anything particularly I must keep in mind from the ethical point of view.
Reply awaited
Thanks !
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Performativity of children in spaces of play

Hi I am looking to conduct research for my dissertation covertly observing children in spaces of play e.g. summer camp where I will work, along side other spaces such as parks, bowling alleys etc. I currently have two younger siblings who I will bring with me into these spaces to allow me to gain access without looking suspicious. I am worried about the ethical implications of my research, I hope to observe different behaviors of children noting down my findings in a fieldwork notebook. However, like I said I wish to observe covertly, and hence will not be gaining consent from children or their parents. I will not be using names, ages etc, merely note taking on things that I see in this natural environment. Any advice would be great, thanks.

Behavioral testings and children

Hi,
I am involved in an intervention study investigating the effects of pedagogical practice in preschool. In order to investigate effects, a randomized controlled study is undertaken and we will be using a battery of tests focusing language, number sense, executive functions and som other areas. The project has received ethical approval. A number of ethical dilemmas are involved when undertaking this form of research. I would very much appreciate references och contact with other researchers involved in intervention studies involving young children and specifically interested in ethical matters. Kind regards, Sofia
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Passive or Active Consent

I am conducting fire research in primary schools looking specifically at evacuation. This involves observing and recording on camera, fire drills which are conducted in the schools. The videos are then analysed to provide data on evacuation dynamics. I will have no active role in the evacuations as the teachers shall remain in control of each class throughout and they will conduct the drill in accordance with school procedures.
As the research is non-evasive and defined as less than minimal psychological and physical risk I am proposing the passive consent method. This would be in accordance with school policy for the use of photographs taken at school events, etc. All gatekeepers are happy with my approach

This has been questioned by my ethics committee who are looking for active consent. The big problem being that return rates for active consent in schools could be lower than 50% and will present a significant administration burden to the schools who have provided access by good will.

All comments are welcome.
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Ethical Concern of street children (Living without adult company)

I am pursuing PhD research from Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai (India). My research topic is Prevalence and Predictors of Psychological Distress among Street Children in Mumbai. In this case, street children are staying without any adult supervision. If I want to study them, so whom should I ask for consent as street children are minor.
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Relationship between recognition of unhealthy food brands, among children, and their BMI.

Hello, I am writing a research proposal titled, Relationship between recognition of unhealthy food brands, among children, and their BMI.
I was wondering what are the main ethical concerns regarding this type of research? I am aware parental consent would have to be obtained. But mainly focusing on the ethical concerns of measuring a child’s BMI; if the child is willing to participate and the results are anonymous Thank you
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urgent response needed about children’s participation in research

Please help me get more insight about how to make children particularly (age 5-8) understand a research project and their participation in it.
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Research on children in the entertainment industry

Hi there, I’m a writer working on a piece about children in the entertainment industry. I’d love to have the input of an ethicist who has considered the ethics of young children working in Hollywood (or elsewhere). Any suggestions of people to talk to would be much appreciated. I can be contacted at sasha_watson@yahoo.com

Many advance thanks for any help.
Best, Sasha
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after care and support for children involved in sensitive research

Hello. The aim of my research is to explore children’s experiences of maternal imprisonment in Scotland. There is very little information about the experiences of the children of prisoners. There has been limited research in Scotland, and very little from the perspectives of the child themselves. A consequence of increasing female imprisonment is that incrementally more children are being affected by maternal imprisonment. This is why it is of particular importance to look at children¹s experiences; because despite not being imprisoned themselves, more of them are experiencing prison, despite best efforts to develop alternatives to female imprisonment. By interviewing children directly it will also fill the gap in the research already conducted, which has been, for the most part, extrapolated from the point of view of the mothers and other caregivers rather than the perspective of the children and allowing them to have a voice. In doing so qualitative methodological approaches (one-to-one interviews) and Visual tools (Talking Mats and Photography) have been selected to engage child participants (between the ages of 5-18) for this research. It will address the limited knowledge about the consequences for children affected by maternal imprisonment and it will provide an insight into an area on which there is little literature in Scotland.

I was wondering if you could give me some advice as I have found access and ethics particularity challenging as agencies have not been engaging as they have concerns about after care for the children should something potentially distressing should arise as a result of taking part in the research. Within Read More

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